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Form l ll and lll Science Syllabus
YEAR ONE- Form I
1. Energy and matter
Ø describe the various sources of energy such as Solar energy, Wind energy, Geothermal energy, Biomass, Natural gas, Coal, Fossil fuel
Ø discuss how energy is useful to sustain life
Ø identify the seven characteristics of life
Ø differentiate between living and non-living things
Ø explain the significance of these characteristics (example, 'organisms move in search of food, to escape from danger….')
Ø demonstrate understanding of energy conservation
Ø compare renewable and non-renewable sources of energy
Ø demonstrate how energy can be conserved at home and school
Ø demonstrate understanding of matter
Ø explain the difference between matter and energy
Ø describe the occurrence of matter in our everyday life and its importance
Ø state the properties of matter
Ø list the states of matter
Ø compare the properties of different states of matter
Ø explain the changes of states
2. The Environment
Ø explain the relative positions of the Sun and the eight planets
Ø explain the nature of the earth as a planet
Ø illustrate the structure of the earth
Ø describe the formation of the earth
Ø identify the structure and composition of the Earth
Ø discuss the importance of soil to plants, animals and human beings
Ø identify the properties of air and the different gases present in air
Ø discuss the importance of air
Ø test for the presence of carbon dioxide and water vapour in air
Ø identify the sources and uses of water
Ø describe the properties of water
Ø classify living organisms by making and using simple dichotomous keys
Ø state that unicellular organisms are made up of one cell only and multicellular organisms comprise of many cells (using appropriate examples)
Ø compare the differences in structure of the animal and the plant cells
Ø identify biotic and abiotic components in your immediate surrounding
Ø outline the interaction which may exist among organisms (feeding) interaction between organisms and abiotic component (habitat)
3. Sustainable living – Use of resources
Ø list examples of renewable and non-renewable resources and their uses
Ø state examples of natural and man-made resources and materials and their uses
Ø describe some measures taken for the protection of the environment
Ø demonstrate understanding of how resources can be managed appropriately
Ø propose steps that can be taken to conserve natural resources
4. Health and Safety
Ø outline cellular organisation from cell to organism (tissue, organ, system using examples of each in animals and plants)
Ø outline human body systems and their major functions (digestive, circulatory, respiratory, nervous, excretory, skeletal and reproductive system)
Ø identify practices of a healthy lifestyle such as balanced diet, physical exercise, personal hygiene and psychological support
Ø identify risky behaviours regarding learners' health (e.g: substance abuse (tobacco, alcohol, solvent), sedentary lifestyle, fast food and sexual abuse(verbal/non-verbal harassment)
Ø list examples of some diseases
Ø outline how unhealthy lifestyle leads to obesity and diabetes as examples of non-communicable diseases (details of diseases not required)
Ø state some preventive measures against obesity and diabetes
5. Science and technology
Ø produce a summary of three major discoveries in science
Ø explain how these three discoveries have impacted on our life
Ø explain how advances in science and technology are applied in our daily life, focusing on industry and medicine
Ø explain the benefits of the applications science and technology in our daily life
YEAR TWO- Form II
1. Energy and Matter
Ø list different forms of energy
Ø explain the conversion of energy taking place in various situations
Ø describe energy flow in a given ecosystem
Ø outline the process of photosynthesis
Ø state the word equation for photosynthesis
Ø explain how a leaf is adapted for photosynthesis (large surface area, veins, stomata chlorophyll)
Ø identify elements as the building blocks from which all types of matter are made
Ø explain the terms 'element', 'symbol' and 'valency'
Ø identify some elements and classify them as metals and non-metals
Ø distinguish between metals and non-metals based on their properties
Ø demonstrate an understanding of the terms 'compounds' and 'mixtures'
Ø identify compounds and mixtures
Ø show an understanding of the terms molecules and chemical formulae
Ø find out the chemical formulae of compounds using the symbols and valencies of the constituent elements
Ø distinguish between physical and chemical changes
Ø identify physical and chemical changes occurring in living organisms
Ø investigate the biotic and abiotic components of a local ecosystem (aquatic/terrestrial/wetlands)
Ø outline the impact of some human activities (deforestation, pollution, overexploitation of resources) on the environment
Ø state ways to protect the environment (conservation and management, legislations)
Ø describe the causes and consequences of air and water pollution
Ø discuss some measures to prevent air and water pollution
Ø describe the types of forces that exist in nature
Ø demonstrate an understanding of forces on living and non-living things
3. Health and Safety
Ø describe reproduction as a process of perpetuating a species
Ø describe briefly the male and female reproductive system
Ø explain briefly the menstrual cycle
Ø demonstrate an understanding of fertilisation and development of the zygote in terms of the formation of a ball of cells that becomes implanted in the wall of the uterus
Ø determine the characteristics of an infectious disease and its risks
Ø explain sexually transmitted infection
Ø explain HIV/AIDS as an infectious/communicable disease that involves a causative agent, mode of transmission and host
Ø state the signs and symptoms and treatment (preventive and curative) of HIV/AIDS
Ø outline the prevalence, social and economic impacts of HIV/AIDS in Mauritius.
Ø demonstrate understanding of chemical substances such as acids, bases and salts
Ø state some properties of acids and bases.
Ø demonstrate an awareness of the importance of acids, bases and salts
Ø explain the terms indicators and neutralization and identify some indicators
Ø demonstrate an understanding of the pH scale and use it to classify substances as acidic, basic or neutral
4. Sustainable living – Use of resources
Ø state the importance of conservation of natural resources
Ø explain how the choice and use of sources of energy impacts on the environment
Ø describe what is meant by sustainable living
Ø explain how sustainable living can be practiced
Ø plan how to conduct a simple audit of resources
Ø demonstrate understanding of how the 3Rs concept can be practiced
Ø propose alternatives to existing resources
Ø describe some common applications of science and technology in our daily life
Ø identify some ethical issues associated with the applications of science and technology in our daily life
Ø explain certain limitations of science and technology
YEAR THREE- Form III
1. The Nucleus and Its Role
Ø state that the nucleus is composed of genetic materials (chromosome, genes, DNA) (details of DNA structure not required)
Ø state that chromosomes are made up of genes
Ø outline the role of genes in determining the characteristics of an organism
Ø define mitosis as cell division giving rise to two identical and state its role in growth, repair of damaged tissues, replacement of worn out cells and asexual reproduction;
Ø define meiosis as a process resulting in the production of cells with half the number of chromosomes and state its importance in sexual reproduction
Ø explain biodiversity and its importance to mankind
Ø outline the threats (deforestation, pollution, degradation of habitat, invasive alien species) towards biodiversity
Ø formulate solutions to these threats mentioned above (including conservation)
3. Life Processes- Transport in Living Organisms
Ø describe the movement of substances in living organisms (diffusion, osmosis and active transport)
Ø outline the role of xylem and phloem in transport of materials in a plant
Ø identify xylem and phloem in root, stem and leaf
Ø outline the different components of the circulatory system (blood, blood vessel and heart)
Ø list the components of blood and state the function of red blood cell, white blood cells, platelets and blood plasma
Ø outline the structure and function of the blood vessels (arteries, veins and capillaries)
Ø outline the structure and function of the heart (the chambers, valves and associated blood vessels)
Ø state examples of cardiovascular diseases such as stroke, heart attack and hypertension.
A. Breathing and Gas Exchange
Ø state breathing as the process of exchange of gases in living organisms
Ø outline the structure and function of the major parts of the respiratory system (nostrils, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles and alveoli)
Ø outline the mechanism of breathing (inspiration and expiration)
Ø state examples of respiratory diseases such as bronchitis, emphysema, asthma and tuberculosis
Ø explain the need for energy in living organisms
Ø define respiration as the chemical breakdown of food to release of energy
Ø write a word equation for respiration (glucose + oxygen à carbon dioxide + water + energy).
Ø explain malaria and influenza as examples of infectious/communicable diseases that involve causative agent, their mode of transmission and host.
Ø state the signs and symptoms and treatment (preventive and curative) of malaria and influenza.
1. Chemical substances
Ø recall about elements, mixtures, compounds, symbols, atoms, valencies, molecules and formulae.
Ø explain the meaning of radicals.
Ø recognize the formulae and valencies of the following radicals: hydroxide, carbonate, sulfate, ammonium and nitrate.
Ø distinguish between elements, mixtures and compounds and give examples of each.
Ø demonstrate an understanding of the Periodic Table as a classification of elements
Ø recall about acids and bases and their importance.
Ø recognize the formulae of some common acids, eg. hydrochloric acid, nitric acid, sulfuric acid and ethanoic acid
Ø identify soluble and insoluble salts
Ø state the uses of some salts in everyday life.
Ø state what the pH scale is and show an understanding of its importance.
Ø list some simple indicators and state their colors in acids and bases.
2. The Language of Chemistry
Ø differentiate between physical and chemical changes
Ø show an understanding about how elements and compounds are represented by symbols and formulae.
Ø recall about how to find formulae of compounds using symbols and valencies (Form II)
Ø demonstrate an understanding of chemical reactions, reactants and products.
Ø appreciate that chemical reactions involve rearrangement of atoms and that during a chemical reaction new substances are produced.
Ø convert word equations to chemical equations.
Ø write and balance chemical equations.
3. Chemical reactions in general
Ø recall the meaning of chemical reactions, reactants, products, word equations and balanced chemical equations and the characteristics of chemical changes.
Ø identify and state the importance of some simple equipment and glassware used in Chemistry.
Ø explain how different compounds can be made by chemical reactions.
Ø appreciate that different metals differ in their reactivity and demonstrate an understanding of the reactivity series of metals.
Ø demonstrate an understanding of some chemical reactions as stated below:
Ø use the reactivity series of metals to investigate and describe:
o The chemical reactions of some metals with air, water and dilute mineral acids.
o Displacement reactions.
Ø describe and explain how hydrogen, oxygen and carbon dioxide gases can be prepared by chemical reactions in the laboratory.
Ø show an understanding of the process of rusting and how it can be prevented.
4. Important chemical reactions
Ø recall about acids and bases
Ø describe neutralization reaction and some characteristic reactions of acids and bases.
Ø show an appreciation of the importance of neutralization in cases of indigestion and insect stings, in agriculture and in the prevention of acid rain.
Ø explain combustion, respiration and photosynthesis as chemical reactions and demonstrate an understanding of their importance.
Ø state the importance of respiration and photosynthesis in maintaining the composition of air.
Ø relate burning of fuels to global warming and acid rain.
5. Experimental techniques in Chemistry
Ø consolidate knowledge and understanding about different types of mixtures.
Ø recall the different changes of states (evaporation, freezing, melting, boiling and condensation)
Ø recall about simple equipment and glassware used in Chemistry
Ø define the terms boiling point, melting point and freezing point.
Ø appreciate the importance of pure substances.
Ø identify and describe techniques that can be used for separating the components of different types of mixtures, such as decantation, filtration, sublimation, crystallization, distillation and chromatography.
Ø show an understanding and appreciation of the applications of different separation techniques in real life context.
Ø measure length using metre rule, measuring tapes and Vernier calipers
Ø explain a few types of errors in measurement and their prevention (end error, zero error, parallax error)
Ø measure the volume of liquids using measuring cylinders
Ø measure time using stopwatch – digital and analogue
Ø measure mass using an electronic balance and beam balance
Ø calculate the volume of regular solids using appropriate formulae
Ø determine the volume of irregular solids, using the displacement method
Ø enumerate a few precautions taken during measurement of simple quantities
Ø explain the need to make accurate measurements
Ø explain the meaning of linear motion
Ø define distance and displacement and state their units
Ø explain the difference between distance (scalar quantity) and displacement (vector quantity)
Ø calculate distance and displacement in different examples
Ø define speed and velocity and state their units
Ø differentiate between speed and velocity
Ø calculate speed and velocity using speed = distance / time and velocity = displacement / time
Ø calculate average velocity as compared to instantaneous velocity
Ø define acceleration and state its unit
Ø calculate acceleration using a = (v – u)/t
Ø draw graphs to illustrate motion; distance – time graph, speed-time graph
Ø explain the meaning of energy and state its unit
Ø illustrate the various forms/types of energy and their conversion
Ø identify some sources of energy in the local context and list their advantages and disadvantages related to global warming and climate change
Ø explain the meaning of work done and state its unit
Ø state the relation between energy and work done
Ø calculate kinetic and potential energies using appropriate formulas:-
Ek = ½ mv; Ep = mgh
Ø explain the meaning of power and state its unit, e.g., the meaning of a bulb having a power of 60W
Ø discuss ways and means to save energy (electricity and fuel) to combat climate change/global warming
Ø demonstrate that light travels in a straight line
Ø demonstrate that light enables us to see
Ø differentiate between luminous and non-luminous bodies
Ø state the laws of reflection of light
Ø discuss common application of reflection of light
Ø state the laws of refraction
Ø discuss common application of refraction of light
Ø demonstrate understanding that matter consists of charges
Ø explain current as a flow of charges
Ø use an appropriate analogy to explain current flow
Ø explain what is meant by potential difference using an appropriate analogy
Ø recognise that resistance is the opposition to current in a conductor
Ø determine resistance using Ohm's law
Ø determine combined resistance when resistors are connected in series and parallel in circuits (2 resistors)
Ø calculate current, potential difference and resistance in simple circuits
Ø state ways to use electrical energy safely at home and at school
Ø state ways of saving electrical energy and the rationale behind it